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e-book Using Light (Longman Physics Topics)

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Integrated throughout the Chapters, Exercises give students a chance to check their understanding through practice before they proceed to other topics. In most Chapters, with an optional introduction in Section , these are optional and often level III Problems grouped together at the end of most Chapters. These problems require a numerical solution, often requiring a computer, spreadsheet, or programmable calculator to do the sums. You'll find the eBook here. Product information Description For the calculus-based General Physics course primarily taken by engineers and science majors including physics majors.

Features Pedagogical Features Greater clarity: No topic, no paragraph in this book was overlooked in the search to improve the clarity of the presentation. Many changes and clarifications have been made, both small and not so small. One goal has been to eliminate phrases and sentences that may slow down the principle argument: keep to the essentials at first, give the elaborations later. Color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics.

Different types of vectors are given different colors. This book has been printed in 5 colors 5 passes through the presses to provide better variety and definition for illustrating vectors and other concepts such as fields and rays. The photographs opening each Chapter, some of which have vectors superimposed on them, have been chosen so that the accompanying caption can be a sort of summary of the Chapter. The wide range of Applications have been carefully chosen and integrated into the text so as not to interfere with the development of the physics, but rather to illuminate it.

To make it easy to spot the Applications, a Physics Applied marginal note is placed in the margin. A list of Applications shall appear after the Table of Contents. Problem-Solving Boxes, found throughout the book, outline a step-by-step approach to get students thinking about and involved in the problem at hand. New to this Edition Page Layout Great effort has been made to keep important derivations and arguments on facing pages. New Exercises Integrated throughout the Chapters, Exercises give students a chance to check their understanding through practice before they proceed to other topics.

New Examples and Applications New optional Example Planck length on this smallest meaningful unit of measurement. Can you remember what it feels like to pull out a spring or a piece of wire? At first when we apply a small force using our muscles, there is a slight movement and the spring begins to get a bit longer. Very soon this motion stops. We become aware of the tension in the spring. Each part of the spring is in equilibrium with this tension acting in opposite directions on each side of it. If we pull a bit harder the spring moves a little more until the tension again balances each part.

The greater the pull, the greater the stretch and the greater the tension. We must not let the pull be too great or it will spoil the spring or even break it. If we let go, the tension sets the parts of the spring in motion again until it gets back to its original length. The tension is a real force, according to our definition that a force is something which causes motion. Forces produced by stretching, or bending, or twisting a body, that is, by deforming it, are called elastic forces.

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Whenever a body is deformed in any way, so that its shape or size is altered, elastic forces will be brought into play which try to restore the original size or shape. Conversely, when a body is subjected to a force it will be deformed. What happens to a football when you kick it? What happens to the floor when you stand on it? Luckily these deformations are often so small that we can forget about them, but they are always there. You might find a mirror and a beam of light from a torch useful.


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Elastic deformation is generally the most convenient method available for detecting and measuring forces. It is also useful for producing forces of known strength. If we want to know how big a force we have acting, we measure the amount of stretching or twisting it produces. Is it safe to assume that if we have twice the stretch we have twice the force without checking to make sure that this is so? Something to do Try to find out if the stretch in a rubber band is proportional to the number of forces acting on it, so that twice the force gives twice the stretch, and so on.

You will need a number of identical forces. How can you arrange this? You can use as many rubber bands as you like and might find a paper clip, a ruler and a pencil and paper useful. Or perhaps you can find a completely different way of doing it. Nearly all materials behave in this way.

If they do they are said to obey Hooke's Law, which is named after Robert Hooke, who first studied the stretching of springs about three hundred years ago. Hooke's Law is a delightfully simple relationship between force and stretch.

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We could hardly have anything simpler. Life is very much easier for engineers and physicists when their materials obey this law. But it is not a fundamental law of nature. There is no theory to prove that all substances must obey it. It is just an experimental fact that most substances obey it up to a point. Do you think plasticine or crepe paper or even ordinary elastic obey Hooke's Law? Perhaps you had better have another look at the stretching of your rubber bands.

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In any case, ordinary materials only obey Hooke's Law 10 up to a certain point. If they are stretched too far beyond the elastic limit an extra force produces more extra stretch than it should and a little more force still will break the material. We must always be very careful not to assume that Hooke's Law holds when it does not.

Do they break suddenly, or tear, or give gradually? Do they seem to obey Hooke's Law at all, or is their elastic limit very small? If you have to bend them, do they break suddenly that is, are they brittle? When a spring or a piece of metal does obey Hooke's Law, we can use it to measure forces.

Physics Spring

The amount of stretch or deformation tells us what the force is. A spring balance calibrated in force units is generally the most convenient method of measuring forces. The dial gauge in the middle will measure very small deformations ofthe ringfrom a true circleand these indicate the force. It certainly is a force, because if you let something go, it starts to move - to fall. But even when a body is not free to fall, it is still acted upon by gravity and a counter-force is needed to keep it still.

The gravitational force on a body is called its weight. We have to be very careful not to confuse mass quantity of matter with weight gravitational force on that matter. In everyday life we talk about weighing when we mean measuring the mass, which is sometimes very confusing. Another method of measuring forces is to weigh them, that is, to balance them against a known weight.

Something to do See if you can devise a method of weighing forces to enable you to measure a force without using a spring balance. You need some weights and a balance beam or a pulley. If you like, you could try to use this arrangement to see how strongly you can pull in different directions; up, down and horizontally. Besides your balance. Bricks in a bucket might make suitable weights. Something to think about Do you think the weight of a body will be the same everywhere on the Earth's surface?

Will it be the same if we go up a mountain or down a coal-mine? On the Moon?

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Way out in space? Would your force-weighing apparatus be any use in these other places? If not, what other sort of apparatus would you have to take with you on a space journey to be able to measure forces? It acts upon us everywhere all the time. No one can ever get away from it.

Do you think you would still feel the floor of the lift pressing against your feet? Would you feel any gravity at all?