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Articles Cited by Co-authors. International joint conference on ambient intelligence, , Central European Journal of Operations Research 17 3 , , Group Decision and Negotiation 14 2 , , International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences 8 3 , , Intelligent Decision Technologies 3 3 , , Group decision and negotiation 23 2 , , Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing , Expert Systems with Applications , , European journal of operational research 55 3 , , Articles 1—20 Show more.

Help Privacy Terms. Energy planning: a multi-level and multicriteria decision making structure proposal R Thery, P Zarate Central European Journal of Operations Research 17 3 , , A co-operative intelligent decision support system for boilers combustion management based on a distributed architecture A Adla, JL Soubie, P Zarate Journal of decision systems 16 2 , , Data also identify and describe the physical, social, legal, economic, and institutional factors that affect how water resources are managed. Water resources management requires a knowledge of the resources being managed.

Such water resources assessments are based on measurements of physical and hydrologic conditions over time and space. The needed degree of spatial and temporal detail that is, the resolution and the level of accuracy of these measurements will depend on the particular management Proper data collection, analysis, and interpretation are the foundation of effective water resources management.

Decisionmakers rely on information that often is provided to them by scientific and datagathering organizations. The data required for prediction and management studies for the quantity and quality of water flows in watersheds typically include:. International organizations, governmental agencies, and private companies collect and store data to support local watershed and regional river basin management activities, as well as ongoing research on more global issues related to possible climate change impacts,.

These data are needed to perform the assessments used in planning and decision-making devoted to various goals:. Because of the variability of water supplies over time, these assessments are based on systematic measurement programs carried out in the past. This is why it is important today to maintain and improve networks of monitoring stations and data collection organizations.


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Determining trends in water availability and quality, due to human activities and trends in climate, requires consistent data resulting from standard measurements made regularly over the long term. Long-term systematic measurement programs are normally undertaken by government agencies as part of the information infrastructure needed for national or regional development.

In many countries, there exists a single agency responsible for water measurements for all purposes. International agencies, such as the World Meteorological Organization, work toward the standardization of instruments, methods of observation and terminology, design of instrument networks, water quantity and quality monitoring, technology transfer, and local training. As in any other systematic monitoring program, it is not enough just to make the observations.

The data must be quality controlled, stored, analyzed, and made available for use by many different clients.

Today the Internet provides a primary access to many such databases. The improvement of water resource measurements and assessments is needed not only for national purposes and management, but also to understand global and large-scale regional processes. For example, the water budget of the oceans, fed largely by rivers and precipitation, is critical in assessing the reasons for the observed rise in mean sea level over the past century and the likely rate of rise in a projected warming climate.

Determining the sources of pollution of the seas and oceans requires information on the quality of river discharges. Yet many of the largest rivers, which carry over half of the continental water and sediments to the oceans, are inadequately measured. Evaporation and precipitation processes transfer both water and energy through components of the global climate system and must be better understood on a large scale in order to model and predict trends in the climate.

A considerable amount of data used in water resources assessments required for planning and management are now available from public agencies through the Internet. Today, one can obtain a variety of mapping and remotely sensed data, including scanned and rescaled aerial photos Digital Databases, once housed on computers accessible only to limited number of users, increasingly are available via the Internet. Just as there are different managerial styles, there are different decision-making styles.

Decision making involves uncertainty and risk, and decision makers have varying degrees of risk aversion. Decision making also involves qualitative and quantitative analyses, and some decision makers prefer one form of analysis over the other. Decision making can be affected not only by rational judgment, but also by nonrational factors such as the personality of the decision maker, peer pressure, the organizational situation, and others.

Management guru Peter F. Drucker, as quoted in Association Management, identified eight "critically important" decision-making practices that successful executives follow. According to Ralph L. When approaching a problem, decision makers need to regularly consider, starting at the outset, "Is this what I really need to decide? By not formulating the problem correctly, decision makers risk missing a whole range of other alternatives. Decision makers can improve the chances of asking the right question by probing objectives, goals, interests, fears, and aspirations.

They also need to consider very carefully the consequences of each alternative. They can devise new alternatives through brainstorming and imagining as many options as possible, keeping in mind objectives, but not necessarily being entirely practical at first. In practice, action-oriented decision makers tend to focus on solutions without considering whether they are working on the right problem. Instead of choosing from decisions selected by others, decision makers need to review what decisions they should be addressing.

Managers in a corporate setting tend to view decision making differently than entrepreneurs. Since they are typically given a fixed amount of budgeted resources to work with, managers tend to define a problem in terms of what can be done with the resources at hand. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, will likely pose the problem in terms of an objective—"This is what I want to get done"—and then worry about finding the resources to accomplish that objective.

As a result, entrepreneurial decision makers will lay out a wider range of alternatives from which to choose. They feel less constrained by a lack of resources.

To develop more alternatives, decision makers should release themselves from existing constraints, think imaginatively, and brainstorm with others, all the while keeping objectives clearly in mind and being honest about what they really need or desire. Entrepreneurs are famous for making "seat-of-the-pants" decisions, which means they make quick decisions based on a gut feeling or intuition.

They are often forced to make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and without all of the necessary information.

While some entrepreneurs are good decision makers, others need to be more cautious about the intuitive approach. One case against intuitive decision making comes from the credit industry. For example, some banks use scoring models for consumer and small business loans, but at times individual bankers override the automated system because they intuitively disagreed with the computer model's results.

These loans, however, invariably have higher delinquency and charge off rates than loans approved by the computer model. In some cases a person's intuition will be in conflict with the results of a more formal or systematic analysis, resulting in an uncomfortable feeling for the decision maker. What should a decision maker do then? And if your analysis seems wrong intuitively, don't accept the analysis, just keep on probing. Emotions are one of several nonrational factors that play a role in decision making.

According to Raiffa, decision makers should pay attention to emotions and feelings when making decisions. By partially committing to one alternative, decision makers can give themselves a chance to "sleep on it," which then becomes a way of testing different alternatives. In spite of practical recommendations to not let emotions play a part in decision making, emotions do come into play because the decision maker cares about the consequences that may occur as a result of any decision made.

Making quick decisions, something managers are often required to do, does not necessarily mean sacrificing systematic decision making. Managers can prepare themselves for making quick decisions by practicing pre-decision making. This involves keeping in mind a decision-making structure, such as a series of probing questions that must be answered, as a contingency plan in the event a quick decision is needed.

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Many decisions must be made in the absence of complete information. Decision makers often have to act without knowing for certain all of the consequences of their decisions. Uncertainty simply increases the number of possible outcomes, and the consequences of these outcomes should be considered. That is, it is important for the decision maker to identify what the uncertainties are, what the possible outcomes are, and what the consequences would be.

Decision makers can sometimes clarify the problem they are working on by listing what could happen and assigning probabilities to each possible outcome a formal representation of this is known as a decision tree.

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Risk aversion is another nonrational factor affecting sound decision making. Studies have shown that people who exhibit risk-averse behavior in one setting will become risk-seekers when offered the same choice in a different setting. For example, most people will display risk-averse behavior by rejecting a fair gamble in favor of a certain gain. However, when the choice involves a fair gamble and a certain loss, most people display risk-seeking behavior by choosing the gamble over the certain loss, even though the risky choice may well result in an even greater loss.

The valuation of a risky alternative appears to depend more on the reference point from which a possible gain or loss will occur, than on the absolute gain to be realized. That is, the decision maker is motivated not by the absolute performance of a particular alternative, but whether that alternative will perform better or worse relative to a specific reference point. Consequently, decision makers can be easily influenced by shifting reference points. Principled decision making can be a useful complement or alternative to analytical decision making. Principled decision making may or may not involve ethics.

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Ethical decision making uses ethical moral principles to make decisions, while principled decision making can employ all kinds of principles i. While not widely used, principled decision making is sometimes used by investment managers to manage risk and uncertain investments. Risk and portfolio managers may turn to principled decision making for complex risk management problems that cannot be modeled or solved.