Walter E. Grube, Jr. The authors would like to acknowledge the following individuals who have contributed information to sections of this document and earlier drafts: Doug Allen of E. Jordan Company David Anderson of K. Little, Inc. Dirk Brunner of E. Giroud of GeoServices, Inc. Leonard 0.
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The guidance describes the elements of a CQA plan that the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA believes will ensure that a completed facility has been constructed to meet or exceed all design criteria, plans, and specifications. EPA believes that a site-specific CQA plan that addresses the components of a hazardous waste land disposal facility is needed and recommends that this plan be included as part of the permit application for such a facility.
The hazardous waste land disposal facility components discussed in this document include: Foundations Dikes Low-permeability soil liners Flexible membrane liners FMLs Leachate collection systems LCSs Final cover systems. This document is the result of Phase One of this approach. Phase Two will develop additional information on construction quality assurance through research that will gather and present information on areas not addressed in detail in Phase One. As part of this demonstration, a site-specific CQA plan should be prepared and submitted to the permitting agency as part of the permit application.
This CQA plan should clearly demonstrate that regulatory requirements for the inspection of liners and cover systems as appropriate of landfills, surface impoundments, and wastepiles 40 CFR Specific elements that should be included in the CQA plan are identified and addressed in EPA's technical guidance on double liner systems EPA, and are discussed in greater detail in Section 2. Permitting agencies i. A supporting organization preparing a site-specific CQA plan may use this document as a guide, and it will enable them to identify weaknesses and confirm strengths in their own standard CQA programs for hazardous waste land disposal facilities.
Construction contractors nay use this document as a reference that outlines the inspection activities to which their work may be subjected or as guidance for implementing their own construction quality control plans. Managing construction quality involves both construction quality control CQC , a planned system of inspections that are used to directly monitor and control the quality of a construction project, and construction quality assurance CQA , a planned system of activities that provide assurance that the facility was constructed as specified in the design.
CQC is performed by the construction contractor s and consists of inspections necessary to control the quality of the constructed or installed component. These activities are completely independent of the CQA activities described in this document. Although specific recommendations for CQC practices are beyond the scope of this document, CQC is important as the first step in managing construction quality. It includes inspections, verifications, audits, and evaluations of materials and workmanship necessary to determine and document the quality of the constructed facility.
This program is divided into two parts: 1 regulations that specify the use of construction quality assurance for hazardous waste land disposal facilities, and 2 guidance that presents the elements of a site-specific CQA plan. The CQA plan should include a detailed description of all CQA activities that will be used to manage construction quality.
Researching and evaluating all possible sources of effective CQA guidance and procedures were beyond the scope of this effort. Second, this document should not be construed to present design procedures for hazardous waste land disposal facilities. That remains the responsibility of the design engineer and should be based on site-specific conditions.
Although the overall content of the CQA plan will depend on the site-specific conditions for the proposed hazardous waste land disposal facility, at a minimum several elements should be included in the plan. Each of these elements is described in greater detail in the following subsections.
Regardless of the relationships among the organizations, it is essential that the areas of responsibility and lines of authority for each organization be clearly delineated as the first element of the CQA plan. This will help establish the necessary lines of communication that will facilitate an effective decisionmaking process during implementation of the site-specific CQA plan. It is also essential that the organization performing CQA operates independently of and is not responsible to the organizations involved in constructing the facility. The agency also has the respon- sibility and authority to review all CQA documentation during or after facility construction to confirm that the approved CQA plan was followed and that the facility was constructed as specified in the design.
This responsi- bility includes complying with the requirements of the permitting agency in order to obtain a permit and assuring the permitting agency, by the submission of CQA documentation, that the facility was constructed as specified in the design. If the owner and operator are different organizations, the facility owner is ultimately responsible for the above activities.
Design activities may not end until the facility is completed; the design engineer may be requested to change some component designs if unexpected site conditions are encountered or changes in construction methodology occur that could adversely affect facility performance, CQA provides assurance that these unexpected changes or conditions will be detected, documented, and addressed during construction.
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Additional responsibility and authority may be delegated to the design engineer by the expressed consent i. Additional responsibility and authority may include formulating and implementing a site-specific CQA plan, periodic review of CQA documentation, modifying construction site activity, and specifying specific corrective measures in cases where deviation from the specified design or failure to meet design criteria, plans, and specifica- tions is detected by CQA personnel.
Regardless of who conducts them, periodic project meetings benefit all those involved with the facility by ensuring familiarity with facility design, construction procedures, and any design changes. Examples of the types of meetings that may be held are discussed in the following subsections.
The topics of this meeting include but are not limited to: Providing each organization with all relevant CQA documents and supporting information Familiarizing each organization with the site-specific CQA plan and its role relative to the design criteria, plans, and specifications. The meeting should be documented by a designated person, and minutes should be transmitted to all parties.
At a minimum, the meeting should be attended by the construction contractor and the CQA personnel. The purpose of the meeting is to: Review the previous day's activities and accomplishments Review the work location and activities for the day Identify the contractor's personnel and equipment assignments for the day Discuss any potential construction problems.
This meeting should be documented by a member of the CQA inspection personnel, 2. At a minimum, the meeting should be attended by the construction contractor and CQA personnel. The purpose of the meeting is to define and resolve a problem or recurring work deficiency in the following manner: Define and discuss the problem or deficiency Review alternative solutions Implement a plan to resolve the problem or deficiency.
The meeting should be documented by a member of the CQA inspection personnel. The CQA officer should possess adequate formal academic training in engineering, engineering geology, or closely associated disciplines and sufficient practical, technical, and managerial experience to successfully oversee and implement construction quality assurance activities for hazard- ous waste land disposal facilities.
Many of the responsibilities of a CQA officer may also require that he or she be a registered Professional Engineer or the equivalent.
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Because the CQA officer may have to interrelate with all levels of personnel involved in the project, good communication skills are essential. The CQA officer should be expected to ensure that communica- tion of all CQA-related matters is conveyed to and acted upon by the affected organizations. This should include demon- strated knowledge of specific field practices relating to construction techniques used for hazardous waste land disposal facilities, all codes and regulations concerning material and equipment installation, observation and testing procedures, equipment, documentation procedures, and site safety.
The CQA plan should present detailed documentation of consultant qualifica- tions when expert technical judgments are obtained and used as a basis for decision in some aspect of construction quality assurance. Expert opinions should not be used as a substitute for objective data collection and inter- pretation when suitable observations and test procedures are available.
It is assumed that the site has been characterized adequately, including evaluation of the hydrogeologic environment. This section addresses the inspection activities that are necessary to ensure that the facility has been constructed to meet or exceed all design criteria, plans, and specifications. The first subsection addresses general preconstruction activities applicable to all facility components.
The subsequent subsections address each facility component separately and are further subdivided into sections on preconstruction, construction, and postconstruction inspection activities unique to each component.
Specific test methods that may be used to inspect the components of a hazardous waste land disposal facility are listed and referenced in Appendix A. The design criteria, plans, and specifications need to be under- standable to both the CQA personnel and the construction contractor. If the design is deemed unclear by the CQA officer, it should be returned to the design engineer for clarification or modification. It may be necessary to include a preconstruction training program for the CQA inspection personnel in the site-specific CQA plan.
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As stated by the U. Department of the Army's Construction Control for Earth and Rock- Fill Dams : Preconstruction instructions and training should be given to field inspection personnel to acquaint them with design concepts and to provide them with a clear understanding of expected condi- tions, methods of construction, and the scope of plans and specifi- cations. This may be done by training sessions, preferably with design personnel present, using a manual of written instructions prepared especially for field personnel, to discuss engineering considerations involved, and to explain control procedures and required results.
The foundations also should provide satisfactory contact with the overlying liner or other system component.
In addition, the foundations should resist settlement, compression, and uplift resulting from internal or external pressures, thereby preventing distortion or rupture of overlying facility components. The following subsections describe the inspection activities that are necessary to ensure that a foundation is constructed to meet or exceed the specified design. Specific tests mentioned in this section are listed and referenced in Appendix A, 2,3. This will help ensure that the CQA personnel will be able to identify any unexpected site conditions that may be encountered during foundation construction.